Ospedale San Raffaele

San Raffaele is a highly specialised Scientific Hospitalisation and Treatment Institute and is an internationally recognised university polyclinic. It was founded in 1971 to provide specialised care and contribute to the development of new therapies for many pathologies. The medical-scientific excellence of San Raffaele Hospital stems from the triple identity of the institute, a place where research, clinic and university training interact on a daily basis. Ospedale San Raffaele is responsible for demonstrators 5 and 9.

Demonstrator 5

Autonomous Monitoring and Predictive Interventions of Critical Infrastructures in a Hospital


This demonstrator aims to include UAM traffic in critical infrastructure for security and maintenance, providing video shots in support of surveillance and technical services located at the hospital. Starting from the vertiport, drones autonomously monitor the secure area, which are operated only by mandated security (or by maintenance) officers to monitor critical areas. This operation is in compliance with the GDPR and guards the privacy of area users. The principle of ‘break the glass’ is applicable, which means the algorithm only interacts during breaches of security, safety regulations and/or procedures.


A major hospital is itself a critical infrastructure. Its business continuity not only depends on specific infrastructure and related technological systems that directly support healthcare processes, it also relies heavily on availability and reliability of other underpinning critical infrastructures such as: energy; information technology facilities onsite and in cloud, wired and wireless communication infrastructures (from LAN to Wi-Fi and 5G antennas and base stations); logistic and inbound mobility; etc. In such a reality, surveillance and technical services are not trivial, especially since the hospital covers a very large area (312,000 square meters) which includes: multi-storey buildings (7-8 floors dedicated to hospital wards, research laboratories and university classrooms); parking lots; a cogeneration plant (electricity, hot and cold water); and large open spaces where thousands of people transit every day (for professional reasons, access to health services and visits to patients - 25,000 daily and approximately 6,000,000 annually). Moving from different places requires time from security staff. Additionally, facilities are not easily reached, such as a building roof where usually air conditioning equipment is installed. The most common technical infrastructure present at San Raffaele Hospital are the following:

  • Medical gas tanks, cyclotrons used for radiotherapy, sterilisation plants and biohazard waste management plants
  • Onsite energy production
  • Transportation and logistics systems ranging from underground and external access, autonomous light rail transport and car parking
  • Commercial and general services, from shops to processing and catering

By respecting the GDPR, drones equipped with cameras and/or sensors can monitor a larger area (internal and external), reach critical sites quicker, perform dynamic and adaptive inspections safely and provide information. As a result, it will make the consequent human intervention or remote reconfiguration of the most effective system, improving the timely detection of physical intrusions, thus acting as a deterrent of malicious attacks.


  • Operate the autonomous drone fleet service on the San Raffaele campus based on the geospatial infrastructure, providing video shooting (day and night). Establish the permitted flight routes according to the regulatory system, permitted weather conditions (wind, rain, fog) and maximum duration of the in-flight operations
  • The operating system and the virtual meeting room are in place and the board of directors can make decisions in real-time on safety, maintenance planning and scenarios to achieve sustainability objectives
  • The business case is validated and proves that drones are not the 'solution', but a very important part of the solution. The service is scalable to other cities and sectors

Demonstrator 9

Precision Logistic Services for Air Transport of Critical Medical and Pharmaceutical Material


The aim of this demonstrator is to develop new UAM traffic with an emergency system that provides a safe and secure utilisation of airspace, providing delivery of medication or biological samples. Starting from the vertiport, drones reach the hospital buildings just a few hundred metres away. Through the windows of the buildings, they can interact with hospital wards where patients are hospitalised and where the drug logistics arrive to the patient’s bed. Using an app and a web interface, medical staff can interact with the control unit at the vertiport, indicating when a drone transport is needed. At this point, drones will be flown to connect the specific ward with laboratories where in vitro analyses are made and/or to deliver medication or biological samples to the users of San Raffaele Hospital. Based on the results and needs we can upscale the payload of drones.


The presence of many hospital departments in such a large area requires significant improvement of logistics performances within the hospital ecosystem, especially for the delivery of high value healthcare process assets.

  • Financial value: expensive pharmaceutical products, medical disposable or implantable products, point of care medical devices, precision and personalised medicine, mandatory legal requirements (e.g., opiate drugs for anaesthesia) requires centralised storage and custody
  • Time-critical Value: pharmaceutical products, medical disposable or implantable products, point of care medical devices, precision and personalised medicine, patient’s biosamples that are necessary for urgent or emergency medical therapeutic and diagnostic tasks need to be delivered with the ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Possible) criteria to reduce patient safety risks. Today, solutions do not address these needs properly. Internal delivery systems based on manual transport immobilise costly human resources or costly and underperforming AGVs and are extremely sensitive to human factors and mobility bottlenecks (e.g., elevators)
  • Operators and environmental risk value: biosamples or hazardous materials are mobilised in the ecosystem sharing the same hospital pathways/bottlenecks used for non-hazardous materials. Depending on human factor risks, the longest the pathway is, the longest the delivery time and the risk of accidental or intentional events will be. Dedicated aerial unmanned pathways will dramatically improve safety and reduce costs


  • The precision logistic medicine service is operational at San Raffaele hospital, based on the geo-infra solutions, and provides delivery of medication or biological samples
  • The service is scalable for use across cities and sectors. It is also compliant with aviation safety rules for BVLOS transport operations in the UAS category of “specific” operations for which a standardised “crush-proof” container is necessary. The business case is validated

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