University of Oulu

The University of Oulu is an international science university which creates innovation for the future, well-being, and knowledge through research and education. Founded in 1958, our community is 13 000 students and 2900 employees strong, and one of the biggest and the most multidisciplinary universities in Finland. The university consists of eight faculties and many specialized research units. They are responsible for demonstrators 2 and 8.

Demonstrator 4

5G/6G Networks infrastructure adaptations


To demonstrate how existing 5G infrastructure may be improved to support UAS operations in the urban environment. How should the 5G/6G communication infrastructure support urban UAS operations? Should the possible UAS operations already be considered in the radio network planning? Currently, mobile networks are planned for terminals on the ground. Following this principle, the coverage for UAs would be on shaky and unreliable basis i.e. assuming some sporadic antenna beams to ‘leak’ on the sky for UAs. Should specific antennas direct upwards be deployed instead? Considering drone services like the delivery of goods, could there be defined routes based on mobile network base stations?


Oulu has traditionally been among the pioneers developing cutting edge communications technologies. Vehicle-to-everything communications’ challenges – how to ensure high-quality reliable communications for different transportation modalities, including those operating in U-Space.


  • The outcome is to specify the requirements of UAS operations to 5G/6G and IoT infrastructure. The requirements will be used as input for 5G network planning considering the topology and corridors or spots/lighthouses for UAS. Moreover, the specification would determine deployment-related parameters like antenna types, antenna directions and heights, frequency bands and link budget. Subsequently, the research would verify if there is a need to configure the 5G networks specifically for drones in terms of e.g. networks slicing, mobility management or performance management.

Demonstrator 8

Multi-purpose and specific service drones 


Service drones are to provide services to city inhabitants and businesses. Multi-purpose heliports are to be deployed to serve for parking and charging of service drones. This demonstrator is to deploy prototypes of those heliports, which may have limited functionality. The future heliports though will be equipped with a variety of modules that service drones can swap to achieve the best match for the requested mission. Also, the future heliports will be equipped with cargo bays or lockers able to fix a cargo container.


  • Scalable UAM solutions: Oulu is a small city that has a majority of the attributes typical to big cities. What are the important considerations, future-proof technology solutions and best practices to develop U-Space supporting infrastructure and services that may be deployed in the larger cities?
  • Nordic challenges: Due to the geographical position of the City of Oulu, local U-Space operations are exposed to severe Nordic environment conditions. The Nordic U-Space technological and operational challenges – what are those and how to tackle them in order to achieve safe, secure and all-weather resilient UAS technologies?


To achieve the pilot deployment of a service drone in Oulu and to specify a set of requirements for service drone supporting infrastructure. The supporting infrastructure includes reflection in business models, integration into the supply chain and service provisioning schemas, availability of interfaces, including end-user, a broad range of communication means covering all operational areas, drone identification and tracking methods, UTM, power supply infrastructure enhanced with energy harvesting technologies, and compliance with EU and national regulations, policies and the MyData movement/principles.

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