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FF2020 Scientific Publications and White Papers


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Low-Resource Deontic Modality Classification in EU Legislation

1 December 2023

In law, it is important to distinguish between obligations, permissions, prohibitions, rights, and powers. These categories are called deontic modalities. This paper evaluates the performance of two deontic modality classification models, LEGAL-BERT and a Fusion model, in a low-resource setting. To create a generalised dataset for multi-class classification, we extracted random provisions from European Union (EU) legislation. By fine-tuning previously researched and published models, we evaluate their performance on our dataset against fusion models designed for low-resource text classification. We incorporate focal loss as an alternative for cross-entropy to tackle issues of class imbalance. The experiments indicate that the fusion model performs better for both balanced and imbalanced data with a macro F1-score of 0.61 for imbalanced data, 0.62 for balanced data, and 0.55 with focal loss for imbalanced data. When focusing on accuracy, our experiments indicate that the fusion model performs better with scores of 0.91 for imbalanced data, 0.78 for balanced data, and 0.90 for imbalanced data with focal loss.

Drones journal
Challenges for the Routine Application of Drones in Healthcare: A Scoping Review

21 November 2023

This scoping review delves into the transformative potential of drones within the healthcare sector, showcasing their applications in medical logistics, emergency response, and patient care. It offers a broad overview of how drones are being integrated into healthcare, examining the transport of biomedical goods, delivery of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), and support in healthcare logistics and air ambulance services, among others. The review also touches on the challenges of public acceptance and regulatory frameworks, highlighting the need for further research to address these critical areas. For a comprehensive understanding of the challenges and opportunities drones present in healthcare, the full article provides in-depth insights.

Drones journal
Retrieving Relevant EU Drone Legislation With Citation Analysis

19 July 2023

This article investigates automating the retrieval of relevant EU drone legislation through citation analysis. It evaluates the potential to simplify legal searches by utilizing references within and between legislation, aiming to streamline the process of identifying pertinent laws for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This approach is tested against expert-selected legislation to assess its effectiveness in capturing relevant legal documents. The findings could significantly impact how legal professionals, researchers, and policymakers access and interpret drone laws in the EU, promising a more efficient method for navigating the complex legal landscape surrounding UAS operations.

Drones journal
Design of a Service for Hospital Internal Transport of Urgent Pharmaceuticals via Drones

8 March 2022

This paper presents an innovative drone service design for the internal transport of urgent pharmaceuticals within hospitals, focusing on the San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy. It explores the efficiency gains from automating delivery processes, addressing logistics challenges in healthcare environments. By leveraging unmanned aircraft systems, the study examines potential improvements in hospital logistics, safety, and regulatory compliance within the context of Urban Air Mobility in Europe. This research could significantly impact how medical supplies are managed in densely populated areas, promising enhanced operational efficiency and safety.

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Overview of the Nordic challenges for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

19 November 2021

The Nordic countries have an intermediate climate with actual four seasons. The weather here varies from summer hot to winter, freezing with rain and snow and all the water elements between them. In this paper, we will investigate the Nordic challenges for Unmanned Aircraft System operations. We have classified them into technological and operational categories. In a recent white paper, MIT Lincoln Laboratory concluded that drone pilots needed to account for ten weather parameters to ensure a successful flight of their uAS. We see, based on our long-term experience and extensive literature review, that these parameters need to be understood what is their meaning on the technological and operational level. We push these learnings on our DroneMaster project to bring education for professional UAS operators.

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Urban Air Mobility Overview, the European Landscape

19 November 2021

Future small aircraft systems, including those having a pilot on-board, remotely operated or piloted, and fully autonomous, will be capable of operating in often unstructured and dynamic environments in a safe and efficient manner and simultaneously work towards assigned mission objectives without being extensively controlled or continuously supervised by human operators. Air is a third dimension to the traditional transportation modalities and mobility solutions that typically had not been earlier considered as a part of Smart City planning. And in order to foster its enabling this paper gives an introductory overview of Urban Air Mobility and its elements. The overview includes the historical retrospective, the observation of European initiatives and legislation, the statements on the standardisation effort, as well as clarification of relevant terms and key elements of Urban Air Mobility available at the time of work on this publication.

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Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Nordic Challenges

30 October 2021

The European Union (EU) regulations regarding the unmanned aircraft system (UAS) that came into force in 2021 emphasise technological and operational safety. Those regulations have been developed on the common rules in the field of civil aviation and establishing a European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The implementation of the regulations and compliant UAS operator activities are still the ground of the future. Therefore, it is essential to systematically gather information about all the factors affecting UAS operations in a safe and meaningful manner. This book chapter introduces the Nordic as well as generic challenges for UAS operations. The challenges can be divided into two main categories: technological and operational. Based on the extensive literature review and authors’ practical experience, both types of challenges are grouped by relevance topics. For example, the weather-related phenomena challenges overlap in both technological and operational categories but still can be mitigated differently. Technological challenges are usually mitigated by UAS design and human-computer interactions, while operational challenges may be mitigated with legislation and organisational activities and personal UAS operator qualities. Finally, the needs for further research on the challenges affecting safe UAS operations are discussed.


FF2020 OSR uam acceptance survey
UAM social acceptance survey

22 February 2024

San Raffaele Hospital delves into the role of societal acceptance in the integration of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) within our communities. This white paper exhibits findings from a survey conducted across several European cities, exploring public perceptions, concerns, and the potential benefits of UAM. As drones and electric air taxis prepare to redefine urban transportation, understanding community sentiment emerges as a crucial step towards a harmonious and beneficial implementation. Don't miss the opportunity to read the insights that could shape the future of urban mobility and societal engagement with aerial innovations.

FF2020 white paper: The unmanned aircraft system's emphasis on safety by University of Oulu
The unmanned aircraft system's emphasis on safety

8 November 2023

Learn about the evolving landscape of unmanned aircraft systems with a focus on safety and legal compliance. This white paper, written by our partner University of Oulu, explores the challenges and solutions for integrating drone operations within regulated airspace, emphasising the critical role of air traffic management, communication standards, and collision avoidance technologies. It proposes a collaborative approach, involving a living lab for testing and innovation, to enhance situational awareness and operational safety. A must-read for stakeholders in the drone services industry seeking to navigate the complexities of safety regulations and technological advancements.

FF2020 white paper: Zaragoza living lab white paper by Zaragoza City Council
Zaragoza White Paper Living Lab

1 November 2023

Read about Zaragoza, Spain, as it transforms into a leading Living Lab for drone technologies. This white paper illustrates Zaragoza City Council's strategic deployment of drones to enhance public safety, emergency responses, and urban mobility. Through real-world applications and regulatory navigation, Zaragoza exemplifies the integration of advanced aerial solutions into urban landscapes. Discover how this initiative not only elevates emergency services but also positions Zaragoza as a global reference in drone technology application and Urban Air Mobility.

FF2020 white paper: Natural language understanding for drone legislation
Natural Language Understanding for Drone Legislation

27 September 2023

Our partner, Nalantis, dives into Urban Air Mobility (UAM) legislation with a cutting-edge approach to processing legal texts. This white paper presents a novel method for transforming complex legal jargon into structured, machine-readable formats, enabling drones and their operators to navigate the skies in compliance with evolving regulations. Learn about the complexities of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques that demystify drone laws, offering clarity and efficiency in a rapidly advancing aerial landscape. A must-read for innovators and regulators alike, poised at the intersection of technology and law.

FF2020 White Paper - Creating a Living Lab for Drone Services in Tartu, Estonia
Creating a living lab for drone services in Tartu, Estonia

4 September 2023

Step into the heart of Tartu, Estonia, where the Living Lab for drone services led by Tartu Science Park is set to redefine urban skies. This white paper captures the essence of innovation, collaboration, and the future of unmanned aerial systems in addressing urban and rural challenges. Discover how Tartu's unique approach to drone technology integration, through an ecosystem of public-private partnerships, promises to propel the city and Europe at large into a new era of smart, sustainable urban mobility.

FF2020 SER digital toolbox
The Digital Toolbox

26 June 2023

Learn more about the potential of the Digital Toolbox, a transformative solution designed to navigate the twin challenges of green and digital transitions. This white paper, written by our partner Serendipity, reveals how it empowers organisations to embrace sustainable and innovative technologies, ensuring interoperability, legal compliance, and enhancing the quality of life in urban environments. The paper explores how the Digital Toolbox catalyses change, facilitating the procurement of future-proof solutions for a smarter, greener future.

FF2020 vol6 publication 1
SAMWISE – An easy web-tool supporting SORA methodology by EuroUSC Italia

25 May 2023

This whitepaper, written by our partner EuroUSC Italia, delves into the world of drone safety with their SAMWISE tool, designed to simplify the complexities of regulatory compliance. The document explores an innovative approach to drone operation risk assessments, employing the SORA methodology to simplify the process. Perfect for drone operators seeking efficiency and safety, it promises to revolutionise how we perceive and manage drone risks. Get a glimpse into the future of drone operations by exploring this essential read.